## Algebra Before the 16th Century

The knowledge of algebra before the 16th century is does not look like what we have these days. The operations are still the same, but with different notations and some theorems have not yet been found. The main challenge of these mathematicians, is explorations and having to find new ways to manipulate numbers and facilitate. It is the basis of Algebra as we know it.

In the medieval times, Fibonacci started working on squares and their roots. He explains in his theorems that the sum of odd numbers will always make a perfect square. He also found the equation for the sum of a series of squares.

Afterwards during the Renaissance, Nicolas Chuquet invented special symbols for the unknowns as well as a system of indices to indicate powers such as x^0=1. He also used the letters "p" and "m" to represent positives and negative numbers.

In the 16th Century, Gerolamo Cardano brought forth a major contribution to algebra with the discovery of the quadratic formula to solve quadratic equations. Also, he brought forth the current symbol for the square root (commonly used as of 1630). Lastly, he discovered the use of imaginary numbers while solving quadratic equations. Such as two answers to one equation. One being positive and the other negative.

As of the end of the 16th Century, most of the bases for algebra up to square and cubic equations have been explored and made accessible with the invention of new symbols and solutions making it easier to calculate numbers with higher powers.

History of Algebra. (n.d.).

Leo Rogers. (n.d.). The Development of Algerbra - 2.

Timeline of algebra. (2013, March 5). In

In the medieval times, Fibonacci started working on squares and their roots. He explains in his theorems that the sum of odd numbers will always make a perfect square. He also found the equation for the sum of a series of squares.

Afterwards during the Renaissance, Nicolas Chuquet invented special symbols for the unknowns as well as a system of indices to indicate powers such as x^0=1. He also used the letters "p" and "m" to represent positives and negative numbers.

In the 16th Century, Gerolamo Cardano brought forth a major contribution to algebra with the discovery of the quadratic formula to solve quadratic equations. Also, he brought forth the current symbol for the square root (commonly used as of 1630). Lastly, he discovered the use of imaginary numbers while solving quadratic equations. Such as two answers to one equation. One being positive and the other negative.

As of the end of the 16th Century, most of the bases for algebra up to square and cubic equations have been explored and made accessible with the invention of new symbols and solutions making it easier to calculate numbers with higher powers.

__Bibliography__

History of Algebra. (n.d.).

*Algebra*. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://www.algebra.com/algebra/about/history/Leo Rogers. (n.d.). The Development of Algerbra - 2.

*NRICH*. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from http://nrich.maths.org/6546Timeline of algebra. (2013, March 5). In

*Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia*. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Timeline_of_algebra&oldid=542224774