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Born : 1873

Death : 1941

Tullio Levi-Civita was an Italian mathematician, known for his work on absolute differential calculus, which we also call tensor calculus. He has worked with Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro with whom he invented the absolute differential calculus, and had correspondence with Einstein, at the time. He has also done work in other domains such as analytic mechanics and hydrodynamics.

Since classical vectors where proper to domains such as physics and mechanics, mathematicians discovered that in certain physics’ areas, variables could not be transposed into one-column vector. That is the case for variables coming from continue mechanics, fluid or solid, electromagnetism and relativity.

At the end of the nineteenth century, after the analysis of certain forces leading to a nine number vector character rizing forces or voltage, mathematicians had to invent a new geometric object. Therefore, tensors were created.

“The "tensors" are mathematical objects generalizing the concepts of vectors and matrices. They were introduced in physics to represent the state of stress and deformation of a volume subjected to forces, hence their name (tensions).”

Tensors have, as an advantage, to be able to be free of coordinate systems, which make the development invariant. It is useful in relativity since it reduces calculations.

Death : 1941

Tullio Levi-Civita was an Italian mathematician, known for his work on absolute differential calculus, which we also call tensor calculus. He has worked with Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro with whom he invented the absolute differential calculus, and had correspondence with Einstein, at the time. He has also done work in other domains such as analytic mechanics and hydrodynamics.

Since classical vectors where proper to domains such as physics and mechanics, mathematicians discovered that in certain physics’ areas, variables could not be transposed into one-column vector. That is the case for variables coming from continue mechanics, fluid or solid, electromagnetism and relativity.

At the end of the nineteenth century, after the analysis of certain forces leading to a nine number vector character rizing forces or voltage, mathematicians had to invent a new geometric object. Therefore, tensors were created.

“The "tensors" are mathematical objects generalizing the concepts of vectors and matrices. They were introduced in physics to represent the state of stress and deformation of a volume subjected to forces, hence their name (tensions).”

Tensors have, as an advantage, to be able to be free of coordinate systems, which make the development invariant. It is useful in relativity since it reduces calculations.

## References

Isoz, Vincent. (2013). Calcul tensoriel.

http://www.sciences.ch/htmlfr/algebre/algebreclctensoriel01.php

O'Connor, J. J & E F, Robertson. (2005). Tullio Levi-Civita. Retrieved from

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Levi-Civita.html

Wikipédia. (2013). Tullio Levi-Civita.

*Sciences.ch - Algèbre.*Retrieved fromhttp://www.sciences.ch/htmlfr/algebre/algebreclctensoriel01.php

O'Connor, J. J & E F, Robertson. (2005). Tullio Levi-Civita. Retrieved from

http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/Biographies/Levi-Civita.html

Wikipédia. (2013). Tullio Levi-Civita.

*Wikipédia.*Retrieved from http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tullio_Levi-Civita